Apples according to Mrs. Beeton (c1860)

The pruning of apples should be finished in February, whether standards, espaliers, dwarf bushes, pyramids, pillars or trained on walls. The main object in pruning is to produce short fruiting spurs. But the stronger the shoots, the less they should be cut. Too-close cutting produces woody growth instead of fruiting spurs.

March is the last month for planting before the autumn. Grafting is now in progress. Scion wood should be taken from trees before the buds begin to swell.

Trees which are most forward should be grafted first. The stock should be in an active state earlier than the scion, which has a better chance of growing if it remains dormant whilst grafted.

In order to keep back the bloom to as late a period as possible, the pruning of apples if frequently put back to the end of April. The buds at the end of the spur will now be breaking into leaf, retarding those at the base, but when the end of the shoot has been cut away, and the earlier buds with it, those at the base will be brought into bloom at a later period, when injury from spring frosts is reduced to a minimum. .....comment from ND......it's risky to do this.......you may cut off the blossom buds by mistake.........

In June, fruit should be thinned when about half an inch across, to about one apple every five or six inches.

In July, trees which are heavily laden should have their branches supported. Those against walls, and espaliers, should have unwanted shoots stopped. Cross shoots should be removed as the fruits ripen.

Gather the fruit when ripe on fine days. Look over the fruit carefully after they have been in the fruit room for a week. More fruit decays in the first week than for many weeks afterwards. Remove the bad; it soon affects others.

Recommended varieties:

Red Juneating, Mr. Gladstone, Devonshire Quarrenden, Duchess of Oldenburg, Kerry Pippin, Summer golder pippin, Worcester Permain, Prolific, Pine Apple Russet, Sugarloaf Pippin, Red Astrachan, Stubbard, Yorkshire Beauty.

Early Julien, Cox;s Orange Pippin, Keswick Codlin, Manx Codlin, Cellini Pippin, Lord Suffield,Old Hawthornden, New Hawthornden, Cox's Pomona, Loddington Seedling, Grenadier, Warner's King, Stirling Castle.

Blenheim Orange, Small's Admirable, Golden Noble, Lord Derby,Queen Caroline, Belle Dubois (Gloria Mundi), Winter Queening, Wellington or Dumelow's Seedling, Warner's King, Beauty of Kent, Northern Greening, Smart's Prince Albert, Norfolk Beaufin.

Comment from ND.....quite a few apples here which I don't recognise.......

Paraphrased from Mrs. Beeton's book on Garden Management.

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